The Rostov region is located on the territory of the steppe zone of the southern part of the Russian Plain, and also partially on the territory of the North Caucasus. The entire territory of the Rostov region is represented by five soil-climatic zones, and is also characterized by relatively favorable conditions for the growth of mushrooms.
Names of edible species, description and where they grow
Mushroom picking is a very responsible occupation. In the Rostov forests there is a fairly large variety of species of mushrooms, of which only a few dozen belong to the category of edible.
Nevertheless, the Rostov region is traditionally not considered mushroom, and in order not to endanger your health and life, you need to know which mushrooms can be collected, as well as their name and main description. The first edible mushrooms grow in spring, and they can be harvested in May, but such spring mushrooms are less tasty and valuable than summer and autumn species.
|View name||Description of the fruiting body||Fruiting Dates|
|Bebik or porcini mushroom||The hat is often convex, from red-brown to almost white, darkening with age. The leg is massive, it can be with a mesh pattern. The tubular layer is often white||Mass gathering begins in the second half of August|
|Obobek or boletus||Most often it has an orange-red hat, a thick and "stocky" leg, a whitish-gray tubular layer||From mid-June to the end of September|
|Ordinary lilac-legged or "blue leg"||The hat is convex, but flattening with age, the leg is lilac stained, the plates are frequent||The season of active fruiting occurs in the autumn|
|Butterdish||The hat is convex or flattened, the leg is of a continuous type, with a smooth or grainy surface||From mid-June to significant cooling in the fall|
|Fox||Light orange or orange-yellow coloring the hat and leg are combined into a single whole, without the presence of a pronounced and clear transition||The first decade of June, and then from August to October|
|Morel||Fruit body with a high level of porosity, inside a hollow type. The main color of the surface of the hat is brownish||Spring period, after snow melting and soil warming up|
|Winter honey agaric or velvet||Hat-foot mushroom with a hat of honey-brown or orange-brown staining and a tubular, dense leg||Fruiting during winter thaws|
|Real saffron||The color of the hat can vary from a yellowish-ocher color to a dark brownish-orange hue. Leg may be pubescent.||Mass fruiting occurs between the end of July and the end of August, as well as the beginning of September|
|Champignon||Massive and dense hat with a smooth surface, the color of which can vary from whitish to brown-brown. Leg flat, may be loose or hollow||From the summer until the fall of the cold snap|
Inedible and Poisonous Mushrooms
In the Rostov region, you can also find a significant number of inedible and poisonous mushrooms, among which it is especially important to be able to distinguish between the following life-threatening and health-threatening species.
Edible mushrooms in the Rostov region
|View name||Description of the fruiting body||Fruiting Dates|
|Greenfinch or rowing green||Flat-convex, with a tubercle in the center, a greenish-yellow-olive hat on a fairly short, yellowish-green leg||The period of intensive fruiting lasts from September to frost|
|Sulfur row||The cap is hemispherical or convex, sulfur-yellow staining. Fibrous leg, one color with a hat||The period of active fruiting lasts from September to frost|
|Amanita muscaria||The cap is hemispherical, then flat or concave in shape, bright red in color, dotted with white warty flakes. The leg is white, may be hollow||Active formation of fruiting bodies from August to October|
|Royal fly agaric||Depending on the age, the cap is hemispherical or almost flat, with a dark umber-brown color. Leg of fibrous-velvety type, white or whitish||Active formation of fruiting bodies from mid-summer to mid-October|
|Death cap||The hat is olive, greenish or grayish in color, from hemispherical to flat, grayish-green in color. Whitish leg with moire pattern||From the last decade of summer to a steady autumn cooling|
Where and what mushrooms to look for in 2018
Experienced Rostov mushroom pickers are well aware of all the places of an ideal "quiet" hunt:
- the blue leg grows in large numbers almost everywhere, but especially a lot of it in the area of the Schepkinsky forest beyond the Orbital;
- a good harvest of honey mushrooms, ceps and boletus can be harvested in the Semikarakorsky region and near the coastal zone of the Don;
- such tubular mushrooms as moss and butterflies sprout in pine plantations under Veshki, Millerovo and Nizhne-Kundryuchenskaya, as well as on the territory of the Tarasovsky district;
- very abundant with the main tubular species of edible mushrooms and pine plantings of Nizhnekundryuchenskaya;
- a very good crop of redheads can be easily harvested by aspen pegs near Kamenskoye;
- real mushrooms are often found in the Milerovsky district, near the village "Degtevo";
- in Chertkovsky district grows row of purple, blue legs and champignons.
The undisputed leader in abundant fruiting is the thin pig, which grows in huge thickets, young and old, large and small fruiting bodies. It should be noted that many mushroom pickers still collect the pig. Recently, however, its toxic effect on the human body has been scientifically proven, which makes its use for food impossible.
Unfortunately, all connoisseurs of quiet hunting, doctors categorically do not recommend collecting mushrooms in the Rostov Region, since climatic conditions, even traditionally related to edible species, mushrooms can make potentially dangerous.
In the Rostov region, there is a tendency to increase the natural gamma background, so quiet hunting has lost its former popularity a little. Nevertheless, when collecting it is necessary to adhere to the following simple recommendations:
- refuse to pick mushrooms in too dry periods;
- the best time to pick mushrooms is in the morning;
- you can’t pull fruit bodies of mushrooms out of the soil, it is best to cut them with a knife or twist them without damaging the mycelium;
- do not collect wormy or overgrown fruiting bodies;
- do not collect unknown species of mushrooms, even if their fruiting bodies have a pleasant mushroom aroma;
- fruit bodies of milkers and Russula before cooking, you need to boil or soak, which will remove from them the bitter components that adversely affect the gastrointestinal tract;
- fruit bodies of morels before cooking must be boiled for a quarter of an hour, followed by disposal of the broth.
Inedible Mushrooms: Varieties
The fruiting bodies of mushrooms should be used immediately after harvesting, as fresh mushrooms spoil quickly at room temperature. All collected mushrooms must be reviewed and thoroughly cleaned of forest debris and soil particles.