Succulents (succulentus) are represented by plants that have special tissues that store water. Most often, in natural conditions, such plants grow in arid areas. However, the cultivation and propagation of these crops by flower growers is successfully carried out at home.
The following types are the most popular in the conditions of indoor floriculture of succulents:
- echeveria or "stone flower";
- crassula or "fat woman";
- sedum or stonecrop;
- scarlet or "agave";
- epiphyllum or "cactus".
Beginning gardeners should prefer to grow unpretentious succulents such as Opuntia, Cereus, Echinopsis, Rebutia, Schlumbergera.
Breeding succulents with leaves is a fairly popular option. This method is one of the most economical and common among domestic amateur gardeners:
- a leaf suitable for propagation must be in good condition, have a dense shape and not have tears or spots;
- For cutting, a clean, sterilized and extremely sharp blade or garden knife is used;
- a section of the sheet needs to be dried a little over a couple of days;
- planting material must be placed on the top layer of the soil mixture at an angle that promotes rooting;
- the soil for rooting the sheets should be well-drained, based on well-ripened compost with river sand and the addition of crushed charcoal.
Until complete rooting, the main care consists in spraying the settled water at room temperature over the surface of the planting soil from a household spray gun. In this way, it is very good to breed sedum and kalanchoe, as well as many grassroots. Some varieties of succulents reproduce well part of the leaf. These plants include Kalanchoe, Gasteria and Havrotia. In this case, a slightly dried leaf fragment should be planted vertically in the planting substrate.
How do succulents multiply by leaves
Propagation by cuttings
The simplest and most common way to propagate succulents is cuttings. Proper cultivation of drought tolerant culture by cuttings allows you to grow a young plant as soon as possible. Obtaining a strong plant during cuttings involves observing the correct propagation technology:
- strong, healthy and ripened cuttings are suitable for propagation;
- cut the cuttings with a clean and sharp tool;
- the section of the cut on the plant must be treated with crushed coal;
- if a significant amount of milky juice is secreted on the slice, then it must be removed under warm running water, and only after that treat the slice with charcoal;
- the cuttings with the processed cut must be dried for a couple of days at room temperature.
Rooting cuttings can be carried out in water or moistened fine-grained sand:
- The first option involves the use of settled, boiled or distilled water. Before immersion in water, the lower part of the planting material is treated with a growth stimulator. It is important to remember that the slice must not touch the bottom of the tank filled with water. Rooting occurs quickly enough, subject to the temperature regime, as well as optimal indicators of humidity and lighting. It is best to cover the rooted stem with transparent polyethylene. The temperature should be approximately 23-24aboutC. Water in the tank is updated as needed. As a rule, the process of complete rooting takes three to four weeks. When decaying a section of a slice, it can be trimmed, dried and rooted in water again;
- rooting in fine-grained sand is also not a difficult event and is quite accessible even for beginner amateur gardeners. The sand should be sieved, and then be sure to calcine in the oven or microwave. Before rooting, it is advisable to treat the cut of the cut with “Kornevin” or “Epin”. After immersing the cuttings in the sand to a depth of about 15-20 mm, the planting substrate is lightly moistened with warm and settled water to the bottom.
For rooting in water, cuttings from milkweed and thickworm are best suited. Sansevieria is best propagated in the sand. After a sufficiently developed root system is formed on the handle, the young plant must be transplanted to a permanent place in a flower pot filled with a nutritious planting mixture.
Fresh seeds are best suited for seed propagation, which must be pre-washed and sown with a peat-sand mixture. The planting substrate must be sterilized in the oven. The landing tank must necessarily have high-quality drainage holes and a drainage layer.
To saturate the soil substrate with moisture, it is necessary to install a tank with crops in a pan with water. The temperature regime before emergence should be approximately 22-24aboutC. The average time required for emergence of seedlings is two to three weeks, but may vary depending on the quality of the seed and the type of propagated plant. Seeding seedlings that have appeared can be done in about six months or a year.
Young and not yet fully grown after rooting succulents need the most competent care:
- at the stage of active growth processes, a plant needs to provide a sufficiently high temperature at the level of 22-30 ° С and higher for full development;
- desert cacti need sharp changes from day to night temperature indicators;
- a significant portion of succulents winters in cool rooms, with the exception of Rhipsalis, Rhipsalidopsis and Schlumbergera;
- the lighting should be full and bright enough, including direct sunlight on the plant, with the exception of the succulents Rhipsalis, Rhipsalidopsis and Schlumbergera;
- young plants in the period of adaptation to growing in a new place need some time to shade from the midday sun;
- Indoor succulents, after the threat of spring return frost has passed, can be transferred to the verandas and terraces;
- the soil in crops and under young plants should always be kept moist;
- For annual feeding, special complex fertilizers for succulents are used.
It should be noted that young specimens of decorative culture need annual replanting, while larger and older plants can be replanted every two to three years.
Problems and their solution
When leafing rooting and grafting, it is very important to pay attention to the following points, which may occur with the mentioned methods of propagation of succulents:
- planting material may begin to frown, but browning and softening make it unsuitable;
- if at the stage of rooting and germination, increased soil moisture is observed, but mold may form;
- to prevent decay, for germination, you should use a landing container with drainage holes or use a high-quality drainage layer located under the landing substrate;
- irrigation measures should be carried out only after the soil moisture level has been checked;
- a prerequisite for the qualitative rooting of succulents is the availability of sufficient lighting.
The secrets of growing succulents
It is important to remember that the most favorable period for the propagation of succulents grown as a street culture is spring or summer, and in indoor floriculture this category of ornamental plants can be propagated almost year-round.