Some time ago, many inexperienced and novice mushroom pickers tested the edibility of mushrooms in several ineffective ways, using the so-called "folk" means, but such methods do not always reliably determine the toxicity, so there is a high risk of confusing the edible mushroom with the poisonous.
A method for checking the edibility of mushrooms with an onion is still not losing popularity. Quite often, instead of onions, garlic is used in such recipes, but the principle of such verification is the same:
- peel and rinse the mushrooms;
- chop clean fruiting bodies and immerse in water;
- add slices of onion or garlic to boiling water with mushrooms.
It is generally accepted that if there are poisonous mushrooms in the pan, the onion or garlic will turn brown. However, the color change is due to the presence in the fruit bodies of a special enzyme called tyrosinase. Such an enzyme contains both some edible and poisonous species, so the method cannot be considered effective.
Very often you can find the statement that when the poisonous mushrooms are immersed in milk, the drink quickly turns sour. However, souring of milk has nothing to do with toxicity and occurs solely as a result of the action of an enzyme such as pepsin or as a result of the action of organic acids, which in different quantities can be found even in the fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms.
No less popular is the method of determining toxicity when cooking mushrooms. In this case, it is supposed to use any silver item, a silver spoon, which must be lowered into a mushroom broth. In the presence of poisonous mushrooms, silver is expected to blacken. This common myth has long been debunked: silver will certainly darken under the influence of amino acids that contain sulfur and can be part of the pulp of not only poisonous, but also completely edible mushrooms. Among other things, there are many poisonous mushrooms with no sulfur-containing amino acids.
How to identify edible mushrooms
Also, during the cooking process, it is planned to remove the poison from the fruiting bodies by adding acetic-saline solution.. The method is not bad when cooking mushrooms with low toxic flesh, such as stitches, but when used to neutralize poison toadstools or other highly toxic mushrooms, it is absolutely useless.
Other myths about self-determination of edibility
So many mushroom pickers are still convinced that the use of pre-boiling for a long time contributes to the complete removal of toxic, toxic substances from the mushroom pulp. But, unfortunately, all the most dangerous poisons are heat resistant, and even very long boiling does not affect them.
Beginner mushroom pickers often pick mushrooms when picking mushrooms. It should be noted that the erroneous opinion that a poisonous mushroom necessarily has an unpleasant and specific odor more often than others causes serious poisoning. For example, the aroma of champignon is practically indistinguishable from the smell of pulp of the most dangerous, deadly poisonous mushroom - pale grebe. Among other things, different people perceive odors very differently and cannot serve as an assessment of the quality and edibility of the fungus.
There is an opinion that insects and slugs do not touch the flesh of poisonous mushrooms, which also has no scientific justification. However, the most deadly misconception is the myth that strong alcohol can neutralize mushroom poison, while alcohol-containing drinks, on the contrary, can spread toxic toxin toxins throughout the body with almost lightning speed.
The opinion of experts
All experts are unanimous in the opinion that all the "folk" methods, supposedly allowing you to check whether the mushroom is edible, are pseudoscientific and have absolutely no justification. Even with the slightest doubt about the edibility of the mushroom found, it should not be taken to the basket. It is impossible to postpone the review of the entire harvest, therefore, immediately after returning from a "quiet" hunt, it is necessary to carefully review and sort out the mushrooms. Also, you can not collect old, wormy and overgrown mushrooms.
Edible Mushrooms: Determination Methods
Mushroom pickers should always adhere to the five basic rules of "silent" hunting:
- all dangerous, deadly poisonous species of mushrooms must be "known in person";
- it is important to carefully examine the collected mushrooms and be able to distinguish edible species from double mushrooms;
- it is impossible to collect mushrooms in industrial areas and near highways;
- it is not recommended to pick mushrooms in dry and hot weather;
- you cannot pick overgrown mushrooms even of edible species.
It is very important to subject the collected mushrooms to thorough heat treatment. The most reliable way is still cooking mushrooms, which allows to reduce the concentration of toxic substances in fruiting bodies. A good way is soaking the mushrooms for several hours with multiple water changes.
The danger of self-checking
One of the most dangerous is the fungal poison phalloidin, which is found in large quantities in the pulp of a pale toadstool. The effect of this toxin on the human body is comparable to snake venom, and for a fatal outcome, it is enough to use only a few grams of the fruiting body.
It should also be remembered that mushroom dishes are very heavy food for the body and people with diseases of the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, hypertension and metabolic disorders may experience some problems after eating them. It is strictly forbidden to cook and store cooked mushrooms in aluminum, zinc or ceramic, glazed pots, since in such containers the fruiting bodies completely lose edibility. It is important to remember that "silent hunting" is not a completely safe occupation, therefore, when collecting them, you must be extremely careful and attentive.
How to cook mushrooms
Every year, with the onset of the mushroom season, a very large number of poisonings is recorded, so you should not endanger your life and use absolutely ineffective "folk" remedies to check the harvest.