House and garden

Breeds of pigs: description and main characteristics

Pigs are the most popular pets. High fecundity and rapid growth distinguish them from other pets. Currently, about 100 breeds of pigs, which are successfully raised in households, have been bred.

Pig breeds: species description and selection criteria for breeding

The main products of pig farming include meat and lard. Depending on which product is a priority, 3 types of pigs are conditionally isolated:

  • bacon (meat);
  • meat and greasy;
  • greasy.

Bacon breeds of pigs have a long rounded body with a massive back, a medium-sized neck, a small head, and high legs. The skin is elastic, with thick bristles, no folds.

Piglets gain weight fast. By the age of 6 - 7 months it is about 100 kg. The growth of muscle mass is more intense, and fat accumulates slowly. With the correct content, the proportion of meat in the total weight is 65 - 67%.

Expensive grain feed will be needed at the initial stage of fattening, until the piglet reaches a weight of 60 - 70 kg. To build muscle mass, a diet must be rich in protein. Therefore, legumes, reverse, fishmeal are added to food. In the future, piglets can be transferred to vegetable feed and food waste.

The most productive breeds of meat pigs are:

  • Landras
  • Duroc;
  • Urzhumskaya;
  • Poltava meat;
  • Estonian bacon;
  • Don.

When choosing piglets, attention must be paid to their size, too large or small individuals may have genetic abnormalities. A healthy pig meat has an elongated body, a broad back, and strong legs. With appetite eats food, does not suffocate during the run. For meat, it is better to grow a boar. In the first 2 months of life, it should be neutered so that the meat does not have a specific smell in the future.

Meat - sebaceous breeds are also called universal. By productivity, they are between meat and sebaceous rocks. The carcass of such a pig contains a sufficient amount of meat and fat.

Species of meat - greasy pigs are characterized by such indicators as a wide trunk of large sizes, a small rounded croup. They gain weight well. An adult boar can weigh more than 300 kg.

At the heart of the diet are carbohydrate-rich foods, such as beets, potatoes, and corn. At the beginning of feeding, wheat is added, at the end - millet and barley. For slaughter, animals that have reached a weight of about 200 kg are selected.

Duroc pig breed: rearing

Among the meat-greasy breeds the most popular:

  • Large white;
  • Siberian North;
  • Ukrainian steppe white;
  • Livenskaya;
  • Kemerovo.

Healthy piglets have smooth pink skin, a curled tail, and shiny eyes. They are agile and energetic.

For breeding, it is advisable to purchase young animals from different sellers in order to avoid incest. Piglets are bought in the spring. Over the summer, they will gain strength and gain strength.

Sebaceous rocks are less common than universal. They early stop the growth of muscle tissue, then there is an active accumulation of fat, the layer of which can reach 45 - 50% of the total mass.

Distinctive features of sebaceous breeds of pigs:

  • massive trunk with large hams;
  • short thick neck;
  • large head;
  • wide chest part of the body;
  • short strong legs.

In the first months of fattening, components such as silage, grass, potatoes, and root crops are included in the diet. Nutrition should be intense. To increase appetite, bread kvass is added to food. In the last 2 months, products that contribute to the formation of high-quality fat are left: rye, millet, barley, combined silage.

Most often, the following breeds are grown for the production of fat:

  • Mirgorodskaya;
  • Hungarian mangalitsa;
  • Large black;
  • North Caucasian;
  • Belarusian black and white.

Piglets are best purchased on large farms. There are more chances to get a healthy purebred animal that meets all the characteristics of the breed. In such farms, piglets receive the necessary vaccination. They are more viable.

When choosing a breed for breeding, preference should be given to animals adapted to this climate zone and feed. This will allow you to get the desired result in fattening.

Photo gallery

How to care for Landrace pigs

Characteristics of pig breeds

About 30 pig breeds are raised in Russian households, both domestic and bred abroad. The creation of new breeds continues at the present time. So, in a large white breed, the Belarusian and Moscow types were obtained, and in Ukraine the Poltava meat zonal type was widely used. Crossing the best representatives of different breeds allows you to get strong individuals with increased vitality and productivity.

White large

This breed is of English origin. Representatives were brought to Russia in 1975. It is currently the most common in the post-Soviet space and has already received the name of the Russian white breed.

Animals have external characteristics characteristic of universal breeds. The body is wide, long. The head is light with a small snout, ears are raised up. Well adapted to various climatic conditions. Unpretentious in nutrition. They have a soft, flexible character. Sows reach a weight of 220 - 250 kg, boars - up to 350 kg. With proper feeding, the weight of the piglet reaches 100 kg by 6 months. They are characterized by early maturity and have high fecundity. In one litter, the sow brings 12 to 13 piglets.

The disadvantages of white large breed include the tendency to obesitythat affects the quality of meat. Soft tanks and drooping sacrum prevent the intense formation of meat on the back of the body.

It is not recommended to walk under the scorching sun, as the white color contributes to the appearance of burns. When growing in hot climates, the construction of a canopy is necessary.

Pigs should have enough space where they can dig the ground and wallow in the mud. The pigsty must be equipped with good ventilation and grooves should be equipped for the removal of waste products.


The ancestors of this breed are Guinean red pigs. Initially, they belonged to representatives of sebaceous species. But subsequent crossbreeding with Portuguese and Spanish individuals allowed them to be converted into meat breeds. Duroc pigs are characterized as large animals of red color with well-developed hams. They have a small head, the tips of the ears are lowered, the back has the appearance of a rounded arc, strong even legs.

The weight of the sow reaches 260 - 280 kg, adult boars weigh 300 - 350 kg. Piglets are quite demanding in their diet.. To gain weight well, they need a lot of protein foods. With the right diet, they quickly gain weight, by the age of 5 months they can weigh about 100 kg.

Animals of this breed are hardy, spend a lot of time in the fresh air. They have a calm disposition. They have high-quality tasty meat, a layer of fat on the back is an average of 1.5 cm.

Low fertility can be considered a disadvantage of the breed.. The sow brings 9 to 11 piglets. In addition, animals are predisposed to atrophic rhinitis. For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness in the pigsty, insulate it in the cold season.

Despite the difficulties in the maintenance and nutrition, the Duroc breed is on the 4th place in popularity.


Brazier pigs were bred by crossing the Carpathian brazier and the West European wild boar. Relate to meat types.

A distinctive feature of this breed is a dense hairline resembling astrakhan. Color can be white, red and mixed. The animals have a small body, average girth of the sternum, thin legs. On average, they reach a weight of 300 kg.

The diet is mainly plant foods. In this brazier compares favorably with other breeds. They feed on pasture, twigs of young trees. In winter, eat boiled vegetables, hay, bran. Piglets are fed a liquid chatterbox. Must be clean water. For walking, pigs need a spacious area with green grass and shrubs.

The first litter is only 4 - 5 piglets, starting from the second farrow, their number increases to 12. Cubs are born striped, at the age of 1 month acquire uniform color. Thanks to the thick coat, even small piglets are not afraid of low temperatures. They have strong immunity, do not require vaccination.

The number of barbecue facilities is very limited. Therefore, finding purebred thoroughbred representatives for breeding is problematic.


The Yorkshire pig breed was bred in England by crossing white Chinese and English long-eared pigs. In the post-war years, it was introduced into the territory of the Sverdlovsk region and gained distribution in the Central, Volga, North-Western districts.

By productivity, Yorkshire pigs are universal breeds. They have an elongated body with wide large shoulders. Head of medium size, muscular neck, abdomen firm, not sagging. The skin is smooth pink with light long bristles.

The maximum weight of an adult boar reaches 320 kg, females - 250 kg. The average weight of piglets at birth is 1 kg. They supplement their diet with cereals and dairy products. Pigs of this breed can suffer from vitamin deficiency and rickets. Therefore, they need mineral supplements and feeds enriched with vitamins.

Yorkshire is a large breed. For one farrow, the sow brings 11 to 14 piglets. With proper nutrition, they reach a weight of 100 kg at the age of 5 months. Up to a year, piglets are fed for lean meat, adults give fatty pork.

Piglets of this breed often suffer from erysipelas. When peeling appears on the skin, the animal is isolated from the main livestock and treated with special ointments. Yorkshire pigs are used in crossbreeding to improve meat quality in other breeds.


Karmal pigs were bred by crossing a barbecue and a Korean bellied pig. By productivity, they belong to the breeds of meat direction and have a minimum yield of fat. Outwardly, these pigs resemble wild boars. They have large shaggy hair, sometimes curly. Color varies from ashen to black.

Pockets quickly gain weight even when fed with food waste. At the age of 1.5 years can weigh 150 - 200 kg. They feed mainly on plant foods and have an excellent digestive system. They can eat crushed grain raw.

The sow brings about 12 cubs, the maximum number in one litter was 20 pigs. Young growth is born large and strong, with excellent immunity.

Pockets are very popular with farmers. Their reviews indicate that the content of pockets is beneficial in all respects. They are unpretentious in food.consume much less feed than pigs of other breeds. They do not need a warm pigsty. Thanks to the thick coat, animals tolerate low air temperatures well. They have tasty juicy meat with a small layer of fat. Growing pockets does not require much effort and high financial costs.


Maxster pigs were bred in France to improve the meat quality of the Pietrain breed, of which they are a hybrid.

Maxters are distinguished by a strong constitution. The body of a small length has a cylindrical shape, the muscles are well developed. Color is mottled or white. The weight of adult boars is about 260 kg, females - 240 kg. The daily weight gain is 800 grams. Sows are not highly fertile and produce an average of 8 piglets. Low milk yield allows them to feed only six.

Maxters are meat breeds and do not accumulate fat. To maintain them, it is necessary to equip a warm pigsty with a good ventilation system. Air temperature should not be lower than 16 ° C. High humidity and low air temperature lead to a decrease in immunity and increase the risk of disease.

To get tasty meat you need a good nutrition of animals. The diet should include cereals, bran, fishmeal, vegetables. Pigs of this breed are not prone to obesity, so they consume food in moderation. With proper care and a balanced diet, you can get a high-quality meat product with a minimum fat content.

Other breeds popular in Russia and Ukraine

The name of the breed

Boar weight, kg

Weight, kg

The average daily gain, gr

Farrow, piglets

Breeding territory






Central regions of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania

Estonian bacon





Republic of the Baltic States, Ukraine, Moldova






Kirov, Sverdlovsk region; Perm Territory, Mari El






Poltava, Khmelnitsky, Sumy regions of Ukraine; southern regions of Russia

Ukrainian steppe white





Southern regions of Ukraine

Ukrainian steppe pockmarked





Kherson, Odessa, Nikolaev regions of Ukraine

Siberian North





Altai, Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk Territories; Omsk, Tomsk, Amur regions






Lipetsk, Bryansk, Tambov, Oryol, Kursk, Voronezh regions






Yaroslavl, Smolensk, Leningrad regions

Large black





Southern regions of Ukraine, Volga region, Krasnodar Territory






Siberia, Far East

Belarusian black and white





Collective and state farms of Belarus

The most unusual breeds of pigs

Centuries-old selection has led to the emergence of many new breeds. Some of them have successfully taken root and are widely used. For example, the Liven breed, which has characteristic earrings on the neck. But there are unusual species that are very different from standard breeds and are considered exotic.

Taiwan green luminous

Transgenic pigs have been bred in Taiwan. The description of the experiment appeared in 2006. A green fluorescent protein borrowed from jellyfish was introduced into the embryos. Embryos were implanted in 8 sows, but only 3 pregnancies ended in successful delivery.

The hue of the skin and eyes of Taiwanese piglets is greenish in color. And in the dark space they stand out in green light. These are unique individuals in which even the internal organs are colored green.

Mini piggies

Small domestic pigs, which are a decorative breed, were bred in 1950 in Germany. The founders of the breed are Vietnamese lop-sided pigs and small wild boars.

The weight of an adult is on average 20-30 kg, and the height at the withers is about 50 cm. Mini-pigs are very clean. They eat vegetables, like dry pet food. These are affectionate and intelligent animals. They quickly get used to their home, love communication and require attention.

The advantage of decorative pigs over other domestic animals is the absence of hair, which is very important for people with allergies.

Pistachio pig

Wild pig living in the rainforests of western and central Africa. Prefers territories around rivers and swamps.. Representatives of this breed live in small herds, up to 20 individuals, led by a dominant male.

Pistachio pigs got their name for the tassels located on the ends of long pointed ears.The body of animals is covered with brown-red fur, legs are black, along the spine there is a light strip.

Pigs feed on grass, berries, plant roots, and small insects. Adults reach a weight of 115 kg. The sow brings 4 pigs in one litter. Domestication attempts have not yet succeeded due to the aggressive nature of the rosacea pigs.

Pistachio pig: breeding

Breeding any breeds of pigs at home requires some effort and material costs. With proper care and maintenance, you can provide quality meat and fat not only your family, but also organize a profitable business.