Forest mushrooms quite often in recent years have been cultivated in home gardens, gardens and orchards. The main problem of such cultivation is a relatively complex symbiotic mechanism, which involves knowing which fungi grow under such conditions. Also, in order to breed and grow edible mushrooms on their own in the country or in the garden, you need to know and follow the technology of this rather complex process.
What types can be grown
You can independently propagate and grow several types of forest mushrooms, but of special interest for self-cultivation is only seven varieties. Previously, summer residents actively practiced the cultivation of oyster mushrooms and honey mushrooms, both intensive, using compost, and extensive, using wood stumps, in ways. In recent years, a successful planting and propagation experience makes it possible to grow in our country the following most unpretentious, but quite valuable species of edible mushrooms.
|View||Breeding methods||Cultivation Features|
|Boletus edulis or boletus||Mycelium transplantation, cultivation from mycelium, the use of mushroom seedlings||It is necessary to plant from the beginning of May until the last ten days of September. The species is not grown under fruit trees|
|Red-headed or boletus||Mushroom seedlings, fruiting bodies or mycelium||A prerequisite necessary to breed this species is the presence on the site of aspen, birch or oak|
|Birch||Spore propagation, cultivation from fruiting bodies and mycelium transplantation||Do not place mushroom plantings of underbred under fruit crops|
|The butterdish is grainy||Mushroom picker, which tolerates transplantation quite easily and survives well||When grown in the country, the species is practically not affected by worms and grows as large as possible.|
|Ginger||Sowing mycelium, or transfer of mycelium||It is necessary to plant in shading, with good air circulation, on a moist, decaying coniferous-sheet litter|
|Fox||Mushroom picker, which tolerates transplantation quite easily and survives well||Unpretentious view, quite easily taking root on the relatively moist soils of the infield|
|The breast||Spore propagation, cultivation from fruiting bodies and mycelium transplantation||Black breasts and violinists are grown under birch trees on rather moist soil of the garden plot.|
Planting and propagation methods
In order for forest mushrooms to grow on the site, it is necessary to choose the optimal method of propagation of the species, and also take into account the botanical features of the species:
- chanterelles grow best in areas represented by sandy and clay soils;
- podgruzdyki and breasts prefer places with a fairly deep shadow;
- it is recommended to gently sprinkle the oil growing area with moist oak leaves or moist sawdust from deciduous trees.
How to grow mushrooms in a personal plot
Most often, there are recommendations to sow mycelium, but no less effective ways are transplanting mycelium and growing forest mushrooms from fruiting bodies. The technology of planting and reproduction in the conditions of home gardening is as follows:
- when transplanting from the forest, it is necessary to dig out the mycelium very carefully, and then transfer it to the place of cultivation, preserving the soil lump as much as possible. First you need to prepare the landing site, removing the topsoil under the tree to a depth of 35 cm. The bottom of the resulting planting area should be laid out with foliage and wood dust, and then sprinkled with forest soil. Next, the mycelium brought from the forest is laid, abundantly irrigated and covered with fallen leaves;
- when propagating with ready-made mycelium, it is advisable to adhere to the instructions supplied by the manufacturer of planting material. Shaded areas with good air exchange are best for landing. As in the first case, the preparation of the landing area is carried out, after which the mycelium mixed with soil and growth enhancer is placed. In this case, it is very convenient to use a ready-made substrate for growing mushrooms, which is sold by garden centers and special outlets;
- The easiest way to grow forest mushrooms in home gardening is considered to be the use of mushroom seedlings. In this case, it is required to use adult or overgrown fruiting bodies of mushrooms, which should be minced with a meat grinder and soaked in water at room temperature for about 24 hours. Place such mushroom seedlings on top of a flattering substrate, and then cover with leaf litter.
When landing by any of the above methods, it is required:
- give preference when choosing a place for planting and growing shaded areas;
- control the level of soil moisture, and if necessary, use the drip irrigation system;
- to add special solutions to the soil in the spring period based on growth activators;
- plant mushrooms in a radius of no more than 50 cm from the stem of the tree.
Landing is recommended not earlier than the last spring month and no later than the first autumn month. It is not recommended to grow edible parasite mushrooms on the site, which are quite difficult to get rid of. You can also try to grow edible mushrooms, umbrellas, pink plate and morels, using the reproduction of these species using the technology of growing litter mushrooms.
The first couple of weeks is required to carry out daily, relatively plentiful, but the most accurate irrigation measures. Further care is not complicated and consists in controlling soil moisture. If necessary, watering is carried out.
As a rule, full fruiting of the mycelium is observed a couple of years after planting. The average period of active fruiting, depending on the type of mushrooms and the observance of cultivation technology, varies from two to five years. To prolong the period of formation of fruiting bodies, it is allowed to produce regular, but extremely accurate loosening of the top soil layer.
Harvest Rules and Dates
Despite the fact that getting a high yield of forest mushrooms when grown in home gardening is quite difficult, however, it is possible to support fruiting only if optimal cultivation conditions are created and subject to the rules for collecting fruiting bodies:
- the first crop is formed after the temperature indicators of the soil rise to the level of 1aboutC, and the grass cover has not yet gained full strength;
- it is best to pick mushrooms in the early morning, through dew, or in cloudy weather with drizzling rain;
- one should not wait for the overgrowth of the fruiting body, as young mushroom specimens have the highest nutritional value and high quality.
Mycelium of mushrooms: varieties
Many mushroom pickers believe that it is best to cut off the fruiting bodies with a sharp small knife, leaving the mushroom root system intact. But there is such an opinion of experts that the most correct is the twisting of fruiting bodies from the soil substrate along with the leg and part of the roots, which helps to protect the mycelium from damage by pathogenic microorganisms.